Coffeeman must know this

until 1000 BC. erOne of the legends about the discovery of coffee says: Once, a long time ago, goats gathered on the mountainside of Ethiopia several short trees with silky leaves and red berries. The goats came into such indescribable excitement that the shepherd could not calm them down for a long time. What happened? I tried the shepherd to taste the berries - those were tasteless. Chewed the leaves - the same. Nature seemed to do everything in her power so that people would never know the secret of coffee. However, the shepherd noticed that after he had eaten the berries and leaves of an unknown plant, he did not feel tired for a long time. Monks from a nearby monastery heard about this phenomenon and, after numerous attempts, found that after insisting the beans of this plant in the water, a drink is obtained that helps them not to fall asleep during many hours of prayers.about 1000 BC. uhArab nomads who crossed Ethiopia (only here coffee grows wild) learned about the exciting properties of coffee.They learned how to make balls of coffee and fat grains - this food was good at encouraging them when crossing the desert. They also began to brew the beans, creating a drink called qahwah (literally “making it difficult to fall asleep”). The Turks modified it somewhat, calling it qahve, and soon he moved to caffe, cafe, coffee already in the European version.600-1000 BC erIn Yemen, the cultivation of coffee began on the plantations.979-1037. An outstanding Arab scientist and doctor Ibn Sina (Avicenna) was one of the first to describe a coffee drink. He called it “Bon” - that’s what Yemenis call coffee beans and a coffee drink.1453Coffee legalized in Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks. The world's first coffee shop, Kiva Han, opened here in 1475. Turkish laws allowed a woman to divorce her husband if he could not provide her with a daily portion of coffee. Turkish proverb: coffee should be black as hell, strong as death and as sweet as love.1511The governor of the Egyptian sultan in Mecca Khair-bek, based on the Koran, which did not allow the faithful to drink stimulating drinks, closed all coffee shops, burned coffee supplies and issued a strict law prohibiting drinking coffee.Under Sultan Mahomet IV, coffee fans were either executed or thrown into the sea, stitched into a bag of coffee beans. But the coffee itself, and the atmosphere that prevailed in the coffee houses, were too loved by the people to be able to get rid of them by prohibitions and decrees. Coffee has become popular and reigned in every home. Arabic custom of drinking coffee has become a subtle and sophisticated ceremony.1582The first European description of the coffee tree and coffee drink belongs to the German doctor from Augsburg, Leonard Rauwolf.1587Sheikh Abd-al-Qadir wrote: "No one can understand the truth until he tastes coffee foam bliss."1596German naturalist Bellus was the first to introduce coffee beans to Europeans.1607Captain John Smith - a member of the founding of the colony of Jamestown in Virginia - according to one of the versions, imported coffee to America.1626The first cup of coffee was demonstrated in Rome and in Venice by the Ambassador of the Pope in Persia, Pietro della Valle. Italian traders brought coffee to Western Europe. In Italy, the advisers of Pope Clement VIII suggested that he declare his favorite drink of the Ottoman Empire impure. However, one sip was enough - and the Pope blessed the coffee, making it an acceptable Christian drink.1633An Arabian sheik Shadli came up with a happy thought to expand the planting of coffee trees in the vicinity of the village of Moha. Soon, they began to successfully sell new goods. The village of Mocha has become a thriving Yemeni city and has given the name to the new Mokka coffee.1635The first coffee house in England (Oxford) is open. The number of coffee houses was growing, and they became such a popular place for scholars — and not so much scholars — for discussions that they were called penny universities (a cup of coffee was worth a penny).1644 gA few Frenchmen went on a mission to Istanbul and returned to France, not only with roasted coffee beans, but also with a copper coffee pot and small cups for drinking.1650The Arabs have banned the export of coffee beans from the country if they are not dried. However, a Muslim pilgrim named Baba Budan managed to get seven green coffee beans and secretly brought them to India. These seven grains marked the beginning of the coffee plantations of India.1651The first coffee shop appeared in Italy (Livorno).1660The Dutch brought coffee to New York (then New Amsterdam).1664The first public presentation of coffee in France at the court of Louis XIV, who approved by special decree the “drink of life”.1665It is considered to be the date of appearance of coffee in Russia.It was this year that court physician Samuel Collins prescribed to Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich the recipe: “Boiled coffee, Persians and Turks are well-known, and usual after dinner ... fair is the medicine against arrogance, runny nose, and head burns ...”.1668In England, opened the coffee house of Edward Lloyd, who was visited by traders and maritime insurance agents. Later it turned into Lloyd’s, the most famous insurance company in the world. Another coffee house, “Jonathan,” marked the beginning of the first English stock exchange.1672The first coffee house opened in Paris.1675The English king Charles II decreed the closure of coffee houses, arguing that men neglect family responsibilities in order to discuss business or politics over coffee. His decree was recalled after public outrage. The appearance of coffee in Northern Germany at the court of Friedrich Wilhelm. The first coffee houses in Bremen, Hanover and Hamburg.1680Penetration of coffee in the Scandinavian countries. The spread was extremely slow, moreover, a ban on the consumption of coffee existed since 1746. on 1820 Now Finland holds the world record of coffee consumption per capita.1682-1725Emperor Peter I made a great contribution to the business of spreading coffee in Russia. Having become addicted to this drink in Holland, he introduced it into the custom at his assemblies. By order of Peter I, coffee was served even at the entrance to the kunstkamera.1685 gThe first coffee pots appeared in France. They were heated on the flame of a spirit lamp.1687The Polish nobleman Franz Kolchitsky, having received several bags of coffee as a trophy in the Austro-Turkish war, opened the first coffee house in Vienna. After the heavy blockade of their native city, the crowns did not want to drink Turkish coffee in principle. But the case was saved by two inventions of Kolchitsky - Viennese coffee (filtered from the thick, with milk and honey) and the Viennese crescent-shaped bagels.1690The Dutch illegally brought coffee from the Arab port of Mocha. They were the first to start cultivating coffee on a commercial scale in the islands of Ceylon, Java and Sumatra.1714The burgomaster of Amsterdam presented the French King Louis XIV with saplings of coffee trees, which safely took root in the royal greenhouses. In 1723, the French naval officer Gabriel de Clier succeeded in stealing a seedling and transporting him to the island of Martinique,located north of the Dutch colony of Guiana (South America). From here, the culture of coffee has spread to the West Indies, Central and South America. After 50 years, 10 million coffee trees were officially registered in Martinique. In the capital of Martinique, Fort de France, grateful Frenchmen erected a monument to de Clier.1721Opening of the first coffee house in Berlin.1727The emergence of the Brazilian coffee industry. Lieutenant Colonel Francisco Palhet was sent by the government to draw the border between the French and Dutch colonies in Guyana. He not only settled the problem, but also established a secret relationship with the wife of the French governor. France carefully guarded its coffee plantations in the New World, but the resourceful French woman presented Palchet with a bouquet in which the seeds and coffee seeds were hidden.1730 gThe British imported coffee trees in Jamaica.1734Sebastian Bach wrote his Kaffee-Kantate (Coffee Cantata). Partly this is an ode to coffee, and partly a shot in the direction of the German movement to ban coffee for women (it was assumed that coffee makes them sterile).Key aria of cantata: “Ah! How sweet is the taste of coffee! Gentle than a thousand kisses, sweeter than muscatel wine! ... "1740Tsarina Anna Ivanovna ordered to open the first coffee house in Russia.1760 gFounded in Rome “Cafe de Greco”. His frequents were composers Franz Liszt, Felix Mendelssohn, Richard Wagner, writers Arthur Schopenhauer and Henri Stendhal. Nikolai Gogol created his “Dead Souls” here.1773There was a so-called “Boston Tea Party”. King George III taxed tea products and a riot broke out among American colonists. The residents of Boston, disguised as Indians, entered the English cargo ship in the harbor and threw the entire cargo overboard - 342 boxes of tea worth 18,000 pounds sterling. Drinking tea has become unpatriotic. Coffee also became the national American drink, - the use of coffee symbolized protest against the policy of the British crown.1775The Prussian king Frederick the Great attempted to ban the import of green coffee in order to protect German brewers, as well as to prevent the outflow of national income, which was spent on the purchase of coffee from foreigners. Public opinion forced him to change this decision.1784Started growing coffee in Venezuela.1790Mexico has joined the coffee makers.1800The Archbishop of Paris, Jean-Baptiste de Bellua, invented the drip coffee maker. The design of the coffee maker was based on the straining method: hot water once, drop by drop, passes through the ground coffee, flowing into another container.1840British marine engineer Robert Napier invented a coffee machine using the principle of vacuum: coffee was poured from the heating container into the receiving vessel, passing through the filter.1855The first big coffee machine using steam was invented by the Frenchman Edward Loisel de Sante. It consisted of several large tanks in which water passed through a special valve and was forcefully passed through ground coffee. At the Paris World Exhibition such a coffee machine caused a sensation, because could cook two thousand cups of coffee per hour.1882For the first time, Arabica coffee prices are set on the New York Coffee Exchange based on the results of contracts concluded.1884In St. Petersburg, opened the international exhibition of gardening. On it anyone could learn the art of roasting coffee and making this drink.1887The French founded the first coffee plantation in Vietnam.1896The British planted the first coffee trees in faraway Australia.1900Kaffeeklatsch - afternoon coffee is becoming popular in Germany. Hills Brosse began packing roasted coffee in vacuum cans.1901The first acceptable instant coffee was invented by an American chemist of Japanese descent Satori Kato in Chicago. The ease of getting ready-made drink provided this remarkable invention with great popularity in the American army during the First World War.1901Milanese Luigi Bezzer patented a coffee machine for bars using steam pressure. She allowed to receive freshly brewed drink in front of the customer. It is believed that the modern espresso coffee maker has its history from this machine.1903German coffee importer Ludwig Roselius, having received a load of coffee beans stained with sea water, gave his samples for research. Scientists were able to remove caffeine without changing the original flavor. In 1905, Roselius patented the invention of decaf coffee. He sold this coffee under the name Sanka (short for sans caffeine - caffeine free).1906George Constant Washington, an English chemist who lived in Guatemala, noticed a precipitate in the form of powder, which was collected in his silver coffee maker. After a series of experiments, he created the first mass production of instant coffee.1920In the United States entered into action “dry law”. Began coffee boom.1948The Italian Achilles Hajia, having improved the device, invented by Loisel, made an espresso machine. On this machine, you could also make Capuccino coffee, which got its name from the similarity of color to the clothes of the monks of the Order of Capuchins. designed to promote cooperation in the production, trade and processing of coffee. Members of the organization are 62 countries.1969In Japan, coffee appeared packed in cans.1970One of the small American companies specializing in roasting coffee began to add aromatic spices to the product. So aromatized coffee appeared.1993Exporting countries united in the Association of Coffee Producers (ASP), which allowed them to restrain the excessive fall in green coffee prices by regulating prices and increasing reserve supplies.

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