How to build a barn do it yourself
Barn Construction Plan
Before construction begins, several preparatory steps are necessary. Create (or find a finished) drawing of the future shed, taking into account the surrounding buildings and plantations, as well as a budget for consumables. The building should have a practical location with the most convenient access from different points of the site (to quickly remove tools and other accessories in case of unforeseen precipitation).
When choosing a place, consider the presence of underground sewer pipes, electrical cables and place it as far as possible from the outdoor toilet. In addition, when drawing up a plan it is important to take into account:
- the size of the barn in relation to other buildings on the site;
- dimensions of doors and windows, the place of their installation;
- features of the location of ventilation;
- drainage system.
Be sure to calculate the amount of building material required. In addition to wooden boards for walls and roof frame, you will need to buy materials such as:
- support columns;
- metal fittings;
- cement mixture;
- sand and gravel;
- finishing materials for roofing, floors and walls (depending on the features of the planned project).
The first stage of the construction of a barn for the dacha is the construction of its foundation, the type of which is selected in accordance with the construction plan. However, given the small weight of the structure, a columnar or helical foundation becomes the best option. His step-by-step installation will include the following activities:
- Create your markup using a tape measure, cord, stakes, and a hammer. Beat the pins around the perimeter of the future structure, stretch the thread or cord and make sure that the resulting rectangle has identical diagonals.
- Dig holes with a depth and width of approximately 30 cm. Given the type of base chosen, these indentations will form the basis for the foundation supports. It will take at least nine piles to be installed in the pits and further strengthened with wooden pegs.
- Create a “pillow” for the foundation of sand and gravel, pouring them into the recesses of 15 cm, watering and carefully tamping.
- Install reinforcement, as which you can use fairly strong and thick iron rods. Be sure to position them at right angles to the ground.
- Lay out brick supports. Cement mortar is used to bond the bricks together (the amount of material required depends on the number of pillars: you will need about five bags of cement of 25 kg for nine pillars). Ensure that the structure is horizontal, and if any irregularities are found, fix them using an extra layer of cement.
- Plaster posts. Work is carried out after drying of the supporting structures with a spatula and any mixture suitable for exterior finishing. Due to the applied coating, the building will not only have a more attractive appearance, but will also receive the necessary protection from moisture.
- Cover the pits with sand and tamp the entire surface.
Foundation binding and walling
To create a foundation bottom trim, prepare wide-sized wooden bars (100 by 150 mm for nine support posts or 150 by 150 mm for a larger quantity). You will also need boards for mounting a subfloor, about 40 mm thick.Be sure to immediately treat all wooden surfaces with a special antiseptic solution with additives for fire resistance. For thermal insulation, the pillars should be covered with a double layer of felt paper, glued with bitumen.
Cut into pieces to create the required length. At the ends of the boards, cut off half of their thickness to provide a connection with subsequent bars. Using a drill, make holes with a diameter of 20 mm and install bolts in them for each connection.
Next, you can proceed to the installation of vertical frame supports for the walls. You will need wooden bars with a length of 3 m (for the front wall) and 2.2 m (for the rear surface). Attach each wooden support to the place of its further installation. Drill an appropriately sized hole from the front side. Slide the bar on the nog and fix it. As a fastener, you can use the corners of the metal, fastening them with screws. Make sure all the elements are set straight.
To give the structure greater strength, perform the top strapping, installing the support rails. To maximize reliability, it is important to know the number of uprights (for example, a typical 3 by 6 m shed provides six upper supports). Use two slats for each of them.
Additionally, prepare two lumber and cut down half the thickness at the ends of each of them. The minimum length of each of their bars should be six meters. Using a portable ladder, set the bars above the support pillars and secure with the help of angles and screws. Now you need to install the transverse beams - the bottom layer of the future roof. To do this, fasten the metal corners to each of the vertical supports and also fasten with screws.
Before direct installation of the roof, rafters are laid. Prepare them in the right amount and with the right length. To do this, calculate the distance from the back wall of the building to the top of the facade. Be sure to consider the allowance of 20 cm for the future overhang. The total number of rafters for a barn of standard sizes is 12 (with a thickness of 40 mm).
First install one rafter, then the rest, by analogy with it. After laying the boards in each of them you need to drive a long nail, ensuring reliable fasteners to the base. Also on each of them create a cut for the subsequent fixation of the roof.
For installation of the roof of the utility block you will need six-meter boards with a cross section of 25 to 150 mm.Attach them to the pre-installed rafters with nails, keeping a distance of 15 cm between them. Between the final rafters and the tree in the upper part of the harness, make a diagonal drilling and self-fasten the boards in a vertical position.
To protect against wind, sheathe the parts of the rafters that extend beyond the wall. For cladding, a hardwood floor is used from the bottom and side. As a final roofing it is better to use light and inexpensive materials, for example, corrugated board, polycarbonate or metal tile. Instructions for laying will be the following: lay a waterproofing on the crate (it is better to use roofing felt), then lay the metal tile, moving from the right edge to the center. The roof should hang 5-6 cm from each edge of the building. Fix it, hammering nails into the boards through the tiles.
Laying the floor does not take much time. You can make a plank flooring, selecting materials of the desired length and screwing them to the logs with screws. Another option is a concrete floor. To create it, you will first need to create a sand pillow, covering it with a layer of waterproofing material. Next, attach the valve and fill the coating with subsequent alignment.
After the concrete dries, treat it with a special water-repellent impregnation, which will make the indoor climate more comfortable. And if you want to further improve the interior design and insulate the room, you can create additional coverage using linoleum or tile. As a result, it will be nice to be in the barn for the whole year.
For wall cladding, you can use the OSB. Pre-installed doors and windows in pre-prepared places. OSB is attached with bars and screws. The distance between the screwed screws should be approximately 30 cm. Do not forget to leave a gap of 0.2-0.5 cm between the sheets of the RSD to improve ventilation in the room.
Once the structure is fully sheathed, warm it with mineral wool. To begin with, overlap the thin wooden slats to create cells, in which the insulating material will be laid. To make the outbuilding even warmer and more durable, create an extra moisture barrier and sheathe the shed with boards. Inside the wall can be finished already according to personal preferences.The dacha shed is ready, and now you can fill it up by installing pieces of furniture, household items and other accessories to create an interior space. If you wish, you can equip not only a storeroom, but also a woodshed, a garage, a small workshop or other household garden building.
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