How to make a heat pump for heating boilers
Design features of thermal battery
Heat accumulator - buffer tank, which suppresses excess amounts of heat, which are formed in the process of boiler operation. In the future, the saved resource can be used by the heating system at a low level of the fuel resource. As a result, by connecting the battery, you can reduce fuel costs by switching to a single load mode per day. In addition, the equipment can be improved with the help of intelligent controllers and temperature sensors, with which the supply of heat from the tank to the heating system will become fully automated.
The shape of the heat accumulator is a vertical cylinder, manufactured in the factory of high strength stainless steel. Inside the device is covered with a layer of bakelite lacquer, which protects the container from temperature changes, the effects of salts and concentrated acids.From the outside, the unit is coated with powder paint that is resistant to significant thermal loads.
An important element of the design is external insulation, which is made from re-foamed polyurethane foam and polyvinyl chloride (layer thickness is 10 mm). The material is distinguished by a specifically complex weaving, due to which small particles of debris and dirt do not get stuck in it. It also makes it waterproof and increases overall equipment durability. Additionally, the protective layer is covered with a leatherette cover. Under these conditions, the water in the buffer tank will cool more slowly, and the level of heat loss of the system becomes minimal.
How does a heat-saving device
The scheme of functioning of the heat accumulator is quite simple. From above, the unit is connected to the pipe from a solid fuel, gas or electric boiler, through which hot water enters the storage tank. As it cools, it is lowered into the circular pump, from where it is fed into the main passage and returns to the boiler for reheating. The heat accumulator is connected to the heating boiler and the domestic heating system through the threaded holes that are located in the unit housing.
The work of the heating boiler of any kind takes place in a stepwise mode. Periodically, it is turned on and off as soon as the heating element reaches the optimum temperature. After shutdown, the coolant remains in the tank, being replaced in the system with hot liquid. The latter is not cooled thanks to the heat accumulator. As a result, even when the boiler is disconnected and it goes into passive mode, the batteries will still remain hot for some time, and warm water will be available in the bathroom.
Types of heat accumulators
All heat accumulators perform in fact the same function, however, they differ in some structural features. On sale you can find units (of both Russian and foreign production) of three main types:
- hollow (without internal heat exchangers);
- with one or two coils for even more efficient heating;
- with built-in small-diameter boilers that stabilize the operation of the water supply system in a private house.
Hollow devices, which are not equipped with a coil or a built-in boiler, are the simplest kind of equipment, therefore they are distinguished by a low price.They are connected to one or several sources of energy supply through central communications, after which they are divorced to consumption points by means of branch pipes. You can additionally install a separate heating element that will operate on electrical energy. As a result, the unit will be able to provide effective heating of residential premises. Such devices are characterized by a minimal risk of overheating and are safe enough in operation for the end user.
Heat accumulators equipped with one or two heat exchangers (coils) are a more advanced version of the equipment. The upper coil is designed for the accumulation of thermal energy, while the lower one intensively heats the buffer capacity. Due to the presence of heat exchange units, the device will generate hot water around the clock, heat the reservoir from the solar collector, warm the lanes around the house and rationally distribute energy for other purposes.
Heat accumulators with a built-in boiler are the most advanced devices that not only take the excess heat generated by the boiler, but also ensure the supply of hot water to the water supply system for domestic purposes.The internal boiler is made of stainless steel with the addition of a magnesium anode. Due to this, the level of water hardness is reduced, and the formation of scale on the walls is also prevented.
Units with a built-in boiler can be connected to any suitable energy source, and they work correctly with various water supply systems. In addition, they perform the following functions:
- control of the temperature of the coolant and the protection of the heating complex from overheating of the boiler;
- optimization of fuel consumption with a decrease in the number and frequency of downloads;
- replacement of the hydraulic switch in solar collectors.
Making a thermal battery do it yourself
The simplest model of the heataccumulator can be made from a conventional steel barrel. In the absence of such, you will need to purchase several sheets of stainless steel with a thickness of 2 mm or more, by welding a suitable container in the shape of a vertical cylinder. Next, proceed in the following order:
- Prepare a copper tube with a diameter of 2-3 cm and a length of 8-15 m (in accordance with the size of the tank), which will be needed to heat the water in the tank.
- Bend the tube into a spiral and place it in the tank.
- Through the upper part of the barrel, which will act as a battery, output the hot water pipe, and in the lower area, install the same for cold water. Equip each of the taps with a tap to control the flow of fluid into the storage compartment.
- Improve the tightness of the tank by smearing the welds with kerosene, then fill it with water. In the absence of leaks, proceed to the creation of the insulating layer, due to which the liquid in the tank will remain hot as long as possible.
How to make insulation
Carefully clean and degrease the outer surface of the container, then prime and paint it with heat-resistant powder paint to provide protection against corrosion. As a heater, you can wrap the tank with rolled basalt wool, securing it with cords or tape. The thickness of the material should be at least 6-8 mm. You can additionally cover the surface of the container with sheet metal or wrap the tank with foiled film.
Cut holes in the outer layer for the branch pipes and connect the tank to the heating system and the boiler.If possible, purchase a thermostat, internal pressure sensors, and an explosive valve by installing them on a buffer tank. They will be required to ensure continuous monitoring of temperature and pressure inside the barrel, and in case of exceeding the allowable values, the equipment will be automatically turned off.
Equipment operation rules
A heat accumulator is a device that is quite sensitive to any impacts, therefore special safety requirements are imposed on it:
- Make sure that the heated elements of the tank are not adjacent to flammable and explosive substances and materials, otherwise there may be a fire of any objects in the room or even a strong fire.
- Ensure full tightness of the tank structure, which is necessary to maintain a constant pressure of the internal coolant. To do this, reinforce the body with ribs, and place rubber gaskets resistant to elevated temperatures on the tank lid.
- If there is an additional tubular heater in the design, carefully isolate its contacts and be sure to ground the tank. So you can avoid a short circuit that can disable the entire system.
It is enough to follow these operating rules so that the heat accumulator created by your hands remains safe and stable in operation. With proper maintenance, the device can serve for several years.
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