Physalis: types, cultivation features, recipes
Types of Physalis
Common Physalis (Physalis Alkekengi) is a perennial herb that does not exceed one meter in height. It has long rhizomes that grow easily, capturing more and more new territories. In the spring on slightly branched stems appear slightly pointed oval leaves with a wavy edge. In the axils of the leaves white flowers appear over time. In August-September, the overgrown cups of flowers become a red-orange protective film, similar in appearance to tissue paper. Inside this bright flashlight is a round edible fruit-berry.
Physalis was imported to Russia from Japan. In a temperate climate, it grows well, tolerates both intense heat, and winter frosts. This plant loves sunny open spaces, but is able to survive in almost any conditions: with a lack of light, and on dense or sandy soil.One or several Physalis bushes can be planted in the country: they will add a little care, but in the fall you can enjoy delicious berries.
Propagation of physalis seeds is not recommended. Each fruit contains from 30 seeds, but they enter poorly. Vegetative is a much more efficient breeding method. Rhizomes are freed from the ground, cut off a certain fragment and planted in a new place. This can be done in spring or autumn. This method is good for rejuvenating the bush. In the middle of summer physalis is best propagated by cutting. The young top of the stem is cut and planted in the ground.
Physalis Ixocarpa - Mexican Physalis. Other names: Mexican tomato, pineapple cherry. It usually grows at an altitude of 2000-2500 m above sea level. In Russia, it appeared a little more than half a century ago and is not yet widely cultivated. Mexican Physalis is an annual bush with extremely branchy shoots. The flowers are yellow with a dark brown spot at the base. Mexicans are very fond of juicy fruits, berries, which look like yellow lettuce tomatoes. The fruit itself is covered with a filmy calyx, which gradually unfolds as it matures.The taste of round berries sweet and sour. They contain sugars, citric and ascorbic acids, succinic acid, proteins, pectin, lycopene. The latter substance is an excellent antioxidant, which, according to scientists, inhibits the division of tumor cells.
Physalis Pubescens - Physalis Strawberry. He was brought to Russia from South America. This plant has strongly pubescent stems and slightly corrugated leaves. Like the Mexican counterpart, strawberry physalis is an annual with strongly branching shoots, which grow closer and closer to the ground. The flowers are pale yellow in color, the berries are small, no more than 3.5 cm in diameter. The fruits have a bright strawberry flavor and sweet taste. They have a high content of sugars (about 9%) and ascorbic acid (30%). Physalis strawberry grows well in greenhouses, but in the open field often dies. The most productive varieties are "Surprise", "Golden placer", "Pineapple". They allow you to collect up to 1 kg of berries from each bush.
Features of growing
Growing Physalis is not much different from growing tomatoes. Many gardeners prefer rassadny method. In mid-spring, seeds are sown in boxes or peat pots (you can use peat or coconut tablets). After a week and a half shoots appear.They are organized by additional illumination by fitolamps, because without it the shoots will stretch and will weakly branch. As soon as the blowjob is a threat of night frosts, and the day will be warm enough, the seedlings are transferred to open ground.
At the intended site, it is necessary to dig a hole with a diameter of 10 to 15 cm, fill the cavity with humus or other organic matter. Escape planted in a hole and tied to a peg to prevent breakage of shoots from gusts of wind and the severity of the fruit.
It is rather simple to care for Physalis: in time to weed, loosen the earth and water it abundantly. It is not necessary to graze shoots. Berries are usually harvested in September and early October, before the first night frosts. Within 2-3 months the fruits are perfectly stored even at room temperature, gradually reaching the room. Before storage, the fruit should be cleaned from the cup, wax and sticky substances which can give the berries their bitter taste. After that, the berries are washed under warm water and dried on a paper towel.
The fruits of physalis clear from the cup, rinse in warm water.The skin of each berry from a kilogram taken is punctured with a toothpick or fork. Then physalis should be packed tightly in a sterilized glass jar, at the bottom of which there should already be 2-3 peas allspice, a little dry cloves and a couple of bay leaves.
For brine in a liter of water dissolve 2 tbsp. sugar, 1.5 tbsp. salt, and also add diced small carrots. Fill to a boil on the stove, then pour into a jar of Physalis and add 3 tbsp. vinegar. Cover the jar with a metal lid for 15 minutes, after which you can roll.
Vegetable caviar with physalis
Take 1 kg of Physalis berries, rinse, cut into small pieces. Vegetables (1 small onion, 200 g zucchini, tomato and carrot) fry in sunflower oil until soft. Add 1.5 tsp. salt, 2 tbsp. Sahara. Mix vegetables with physalis, roll up in jars or serve immediately as a cold or warm side dish to fish, meat.
Plum jam with physalis
To 1.5 kg of sugar, add 1 cup of water, boil the syrup. When it boils, add 1 kg of plums (without stones) and 300 g of physalis sliced fruits. Boil for 10 minutes, let cool, then boil for a quarter of an hour.Jam pour over the banks and roll up under the covers.
Medicinal properties of Physalis:
- eating 5-7 ripe Physalis berries daily will normalize blood pressure;
- for quinsy, stomatitis and laryngitis three times a day, take 1 tbsp. juice from fresh fruits of Physalis;
- it will relieve a decoction of fruits from a toothache (finely chopped 5-7 berries are taken for 1 cup of water, boiled for 10 minutes; strain the broth, and then rinse the mouth with it).
The cigarette lanterns of Physalis can be used to decorate a house. In autumn, when the cup around the fruit gets orange or purple, shoots must be cut off, remove all the leaves from them and dry them, protecting them from the sun, in a well-ventilated room. Sometimes the stem with “flashlights” is placed in a vase immediately after drying, but dried flowers are very fragile, so you need to remove the “flashlights” with the legs, and then fix them on a twig, plastic or metal rod with glue.
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