Types and device of warm floors

Apparently the human physiology itself once prompted the inventor of the first heated floor to create such a design. Apparently, people have long noticed that when the feet are in a comfortable warmth, the whole body is inevitably warmed. That is why the recommended temperature of the heated floor should be in the range of 25 - 28 C.
Heated floor - not a luxury, but an integral part of any home. In just the past few years, manufacturers of this product have filled the market with advanced heating systems, at affordable prices with a high level of security.
Currently, there are two categories of warm floors: the already mentioned water and electric. The latter are of three types: cable, film, rod. According to the method of heating infrared and convection heated floors are distinguished. And the type of laying - suitable for "wet" installation (on the tile adhesive or screed) and "dry".

Water warm floor

Floating water floor heating type suitable for wooden floors. First lay a layer of foam (or other suitable insulation) with grooves done. Pipes are stacked on aluminum reflectors. Then the parquet, laminate, etc., spreads. This design is used as additional heating against the background of conventional heating, since it does not retain heat, but it heats up quickly.
The classic version of the water floor, filled with screed, suitable for large areas (more than 30 sq. M.). It consists of several layers: slab, insulation, a layer of concrete 2-3 cm, pipes (copper, metal-plastic, polypropylene), a layer of concrete fill 5-10 cm, decorative coating. Add another pump and control unit. Advantages - heat accumulation, durability, unpretentiousness to any coatings and static loads, efficiency in work; disadvantages - the high cost of installation, raising the floor to a tangible height, the complexity of the repair, the need for engineering calculations.

Electric floor heating

Electric thermal floor is suitable for heating small areas (no more than 30 sq. M.). For example, hallway, bathroom, kitchen. It is simpler in design and operation.As a rule, it consists of a heating element (three types), a thermostat, fasteners and connecting elements.
Please note that if you plan to use a heated floor as the main source of heat, this will not save you from having to pay for the main heating, even if you turn it off.
The cable warm floor is laid in the following layers: thermal insulation layer (2-3 cm), 1-2 cm layer on top of the screed (cement, sand), then the cable (heating element) is laid down in steps of 10-15 cm according to the marking of the plaster grid. 5 cm. Covered by cover. It must be remembered that in this case the floor also rises 5-7 cm from the original. And this is one of the drawbacks. This may also include prolonged heating and cooling. Advantages - reliability, ease of installation and operation. Cables are single and twin wires. High-quality cable insulation is able to keep electromagnetic radiation two orders of magnitude lower than permissible.
The next type of electric floor is a heating (cable) mat. It is suitable for cases when it is impossible to significantly increase the height of the floor. It consists of a thin self-bonding mesh (2-3 mm), 0.5 m wide, with a 3 mm cable attached to it. Poured 1.5-2 cm with a coupler or the same layer of tile glue.From above, you can immediately lay carpet or tile. The disadvantages include: low profitability compared with the cable, higher price, laying on the area free from furniture. Advantages - ease of installation, short heating time.
Another type of warm electric floor - infrared film (IR). It is laid in a "dry" installation (taking only two hours of your time), under any coating, as well as on the ceiling or walls. Its thickness is about 0.3 mm, so the film practically does not change the surface relief. Heat comes from the thermal paste enclosed between the top and bottom layers of the film. The main disadvantages are that they do not tolerate an alkaline environment, they are “afraid” of accumulations of furniture. Can serve both as an additional, and main type of heating.
The warm floor is a comfortable and safe device, all systems have safety elements, so even when using an electric floor you can not be afraid of electric shocks. They are simply impossible.
The third type of warm floor - carbon rod mat, the most economical of all infrared heaters. It is performed in the form of a flexible mat, with a distance of 1 dm between parallel rods.It is easy to install (“wet” installation), eliminates surface overheating (freely maintains furniture installation), does not overdry air, self-regulates, continues to work even if one rod breaks (due to parallel connection of an electrical circuit).

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